Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Vinnie Bell (born Vincent Gambella, 1935, New York) is a leading American session guitarist and pioneer of electronic effects in pop music. He played in nightclubs in New York City in the late 1950s. By 1962, Bell decided to devote his energies to working as a studio musician both in New York and Los Angeles, California, developing a "watery" guitar sound popular in instrumental recordings in the 1960s. Although he only recorded occasionally under his own name, Bell left an indelible mark on hundreds of hit pop recordings. Vinnie played on Frank Sinatra's "New York, New York", for one. He also invented a number of electric guitar models, including the first electric 12-string guitar, and the electric sitar, using it on such hits as "Green Tambourine" by The Lemon Pipers, "Band of Gold" by Freda Payne, and the main theme from the 1970 film, Airport. The latter sold over one million copies, and was awarded a gold disc.